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The Philippines encompasses about 7, islands and sits nearly 8, miles away from Washington, DC. By the late s, it had an estimated population of 8 million. Like many people on the mainland, he believed Filipinos were incapable of self-government and did not want another foreign power to take over the islands. The decision to keep the Philippines during the Treaty of Paris that the Senate approved in February set off an intense and emotional debate across the country and on Capitol Hill. Anti-imperialists, on the other hand, believed that America, which itself had once been an overseas colony, had no right to take the islands as the spoils of war.
Day, Senator William P. By the time the United States took control of the Manila government in , the Philippines had been in a state of war for the better part of three years. The Philippine-American War erupted less than a month later. In response, the United States placed the Philippines under martial law until the fighting wound down in The multi-year conflict, which Filipinos saw as a continued fight for sovereignty but which Americans considered to be more of an insurrection, was bloody and devastating.
What started as a more conventional struggle quickly gave way to a fierce guerrilla fight. According to one State Department estimate, 20, Filipino revolutionaries and 4, American troops died in combat while upward of , Filipino civilians starved to death, died of disease, or were killed in combat.
Another estimate puts the total fatalities at nearly , Filipinos and 6, Americans. Reports of torture and other atrocities, especially late in the conflict, underscored the brutality of the war. By , even as the Theodore Roosevelt administration declared victory in the archipelago, the conflict had left an indelible mark on the identity of the Philippines.
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If the idea of the Philippines as a sovereign nation had simmered just out of reach during the late 19th century, the collective experience fighting the Spanish and then the Americans inspired the islands to embrace a sense of nationhood, to celebrate their commonalities and shared beliefs, and to eventually adopt an identity that made them Filipinos first and foremost. It called on the United States to end martial law and revealed that Filipinos wanted their government to defend religious freedom, protect basic human rights, and guarantee home rule.
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But Schurman set the tone for future U. It also called for public works, capital investment, and educational reform. On the heels of its report, the commission assumed all legislative powers in the Philippines on September 1, The transfer of power from the military to the temporary insular government in also marked the beginning of Filipino involvement in the Manila administration.
Taft was a federal judge when President William McKinley chose him to lead the second Philippine commission in Taft later was appointed War Secretary, elected as the 27th President in , and appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Legarda was one of the first to adopt and help shape this mutual understanding. Legarda was by no means a revolutionary, but he did serve, again briefly, as the vice president of the Philippine congress in the town of Malolos.
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But he was also an entrepreneur, and open warfare first with Spain and then with the United States made it difficult to run a business. He believed that courting men of such stature would help end the Philippine-American War and convince the rest of the population to cast their lot with the United States. By the end of , enough Filipino elites had recognized U. Per the earlier Spooner bill, Taft became civil governor of the Philippines on July 4, , and appointed Legarda and two other Filipinos to the commission in September.
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Headed by a governor general, the commission would be evenly divided between four Americans and four Filipinos. It created a popularly elected assembly to govern alongside the commission pending the results of a territorywide census. The legislation also provided the Philippines with two Resident Commissioners, one elected by the commission, the other elected by the assembly, each selection subject to the approval of the other chamber.
The decision to give the Philippines two representatives in Washington is unique in American history, as all other overseas U. Five months later, on July 4, , President Theodore Roosevelt issued a full amnesty proclamation that pardoned anyone who fought against the United States in the Philippine-American War. Philippine nationalists initially splintered into different factions, their main disagreement stemming from conflicting views on the urgency of independence. While some advocated for immediate, unequivocal independence, others sought a more prolonged process to allow the new government to find its footing.
In , on the eve of the opening of the Philippine assembly, the two main blocs pushing for immediate independence merged to form the Partido Nacionalista Nationalist Party. By that point, the nationalist movement was so strong that even Federalistas, who had once advocated for annexation, rebranded themselves as the Partido Nacional Progresista National Progressive Party and began calling for gradual independence. Following the territorial census, American officials gave the go-ahead for an election to open the Philippine assembly.
With a number of restrictions in place, only a fraction of the population qualified to vote, and within that fraction there seemed to be no consensus on the timeline for independence. Consequently, no party captured the majority. It was not until the legislature convened, however, that Filipino leaders assembled behind the Partido Nacionalista. With the opening of the new territorial government, the Philippine legislature sent its first two Resident Commissioners—Benito Legarda and Pablo Ocampo —to Capitol Hill during the winter of — From then until , when the Philippines became independent, the territory sent a total of 13 Resident Commissioners to Congress.
Aguinaldo was captured in and consented to declare his allegiance to the United States. On the whole, the 13 came from traditionally wealthy and urban families. They attended the best schools both in Manila and occasionally abroad, and, alongside being fluent in Spanish and their own native languages, often spoke English fluently or well enough to get by. Ocampo was an exception and brought a translator with him to Congress. Otherwise, even if the Resident Commissioners grew up in one of the rural provinces outside Manila, they used the capital city as their primary launching pad for their political careers.
A number of Resident Commissioners took part in the conflicts that ravaged the islands during the turn of the century, fighting against the Spanish, the Americans, or both. Afterward, U. Just a few years later, in , Ocampo was elected to Congress. Before they entered politics, Resident Commissioners frequently started out in business, journalism, law, or some combination thereof. Five had been successful businessmen, five had law backgrounds, and four worked in journalism, including two who edited pro-independence newspapers and another who won the Pulitzer Prize on the eve of World War II.
Like Congressmen during any era, Resident Commissioners often started their political careers at the local level and served in their home provinces before making the jump to higher positions in Manila. Three Resident Commissioners were provincial governors, and others held more minor positions. Some, however, started closer to the top. Elizalde was an economic adviser to the Philippine president.
Before their tenures in Washington, five Resident Commissioners served in the lower chamber of the territorial legislature, either in the Philippine assembly or, later, the Philippine house of representatives. Legarda and de Veyra sat on the Philippine commission as two of its only Filipino members. Three others served in the Philippine senate, which replaced the commission in To balance the interests of both the Philippine commission and the assembly, the legislative bodies elected candidates who would be quickly ratified by the opposite chamber.
Following the adoption of the Constitution, the early federal Congresses continued the practice as the nation expanded westward. Because their positions were created by an act of Congress rather than delineated in the Constitution, Delegates and Resident Commissioners are considered statutory representatives and their rights and prerogatives as Members depend on a host of different variables, including House Rules and the whims of the majority.
Resident Commissioners from the Philippines initially served two-year terms. Their terms were shortened to three years in As part of the deal giving the Philippines its eventual independence, the islands agreed to send a single Resident Commissioner per term rather than a pair. For interested observers in Manila during the early s, the new Resident Commissioners were a matter of speculation.
In practice, there was little difference between Delegates and Resident Commissioners; Congress gave both offices little legislative agency. Because the House denied the Filipinos a vote and prohibited them from serving on committees, they functioned more like lobbyists and cultural ambassadors than legislators. They were given a salary, access to the House Floor, office space, and, eventually, franking privileges, but they had to wield power in different ways: pigeonholing Members, testifying before committees, and leaning on the Bureau of Insular Affairs. The Resident Commissioners were not so much the representatives of the Filipino people as they were the mouthpieces of the territorial government controlled by the Nacionalistas, and, in theory, they were supposed to follow the marching orders sent by party leaders.
As part of the first set of Resident Commissioners from the Philippines, Legarda grasped the subtleties of his office early on. House of Representatives About this object This diagram depicts the House Chamber seating chart for the 62nd Congress — Quezon were assigned to seats in the last two rows on the west side.
With a handful of exceptions, informing Members of Congress was often all they could do. For the years that we have records, Resident Commissioners were assigned seats in the back of the chamber with the minority party often in close proximity to one another, but not necessarily next to one another. In , for instance, Legarda and Quezon sat at desks in the second-to-last row on the Democratic side of the chamber. But the next year, at the start of the 62nd Congress — , after Democrats captured the majority during the fall elections, Legarda and Quezon were assigned to desks in the last two rows on the Republican side.
Although the historical record is thin, some evidence suggests that the earliest Resident Commissioners interacted with other statutory representatives. One of them—often the one more well versed in the issues and able to navigate the ever-changing congressional landscape—handled the legislative lift. After the Supreme Court declared income taxes unconstitutional in , Congress continued to rely on tariffs—fees placed on imported goods—to raise money for the federal treasury.
Not wanting to waste time, the new President called Congress into special session to deal expressly with the issue.
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Taft with a group of Congressmen, Senators, and others in a train station. Spanish goods were essentially treated the same as U. But when those 10 years were up, Congress was free to overhaul how America did business with its farthest territory. For Taft, that meant tightly binding the Philippines to the U. It was dollar diplomacy in its purest form, the historian H. Brands once observed. With such high stakes, the territorial government leaned heavily on its new Resident Commissioners.
All source populations were represented at the end of the experiment Season 6.
The Philippines, 1898–1946
The persistence of all populations suggests that admixture or climate-adjusted provenancing may be a realistic option to restore depleted populations of herbaceous plants in grassy eucalypt woodlands in a warming climate. Additional keywords: assisted colonisation, Bulbine , exotic species, macropod, Microseris , Stackhousia.
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Search our journals. Water temperature and water body size explained Sampling depth explained 8. These were Chlorolestes fasciatus , Elattoneura glauca , Proischnura rotundipennis and Zosteraeshna minuscula. No dragonfly species was unique to the artificial reservoirs. These were Borborophilus afzelii , Laccotrephes brachialis , Limnogonus capensis , Ranatra grandicollis and Sigara pectoralis.
No bug species were unique to the artificial reservoirs.