Developing Nation & Texas – 1820-1847 (A First-hand History) (First-hand History of America Book 6)

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Early History Hancock County, MS - Hancock County Historical Society

The objective of the course was to prepare officers for higher responsibilities in supply work for the Army by teaching them the language, problems, and viewpoints of businessmen and industrial organizations. Students learned industrial methods adaptable to supply operations and analyzed administrative problems by means of the case method. Margaret E. From the description of Margaret E. Lynn Army Music and Theatre Collection, New York Public Library.

Fort Lowell , Camp Bowie , Camp Goodwin , and Fort Crittenden were early Southern Arizona military posts which relied on cavalry in their protection of settlers. From the description of Report on Conditions for Cavalry, ca.

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Fort Dalles was established in as a supply depot for the U. Army on the Columbia River in Oregon. After the discovery of gold in at Fort Colville, Washington Territory, Americans began to arrive in greater numbers and friction with the Indians increased. During the Civil War the regular army was removed, and volunteer troops from California, Oregon, and Washington took over the task of protecting the frontier settlements. Although Fort Dalles was abandoned in , Forts Simcoe, Vancouver, Yamhill, and other military camps whose records appear in this collection were important centers of military activity in the Pacific Northwest during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

From the description of Fort Dalles records, These Indian regiments were mainly composed of refugee Indians from the Indian Territory. Kansas State Historical Society. Army's Persian Gulf Command maintained a supply line through Iran for the benefit of our Soviet allies. The first American troops of the PGC arrived in Iran in December and quickly took control of the Trans-Iranian Railway, which had been completed only three years earlier.

Biographical notes:

The Persian Gulf Command moved material and supplies from port cities on the gulf through the mountains to Iran's border with the Soviet Union, by train and by truck, until the end of the war in Europe in the spring of It left Indianapolis, Ind. It was attached to the defenses of Washington, D. White House, Va. Attached Brigade, 1st Division, 25th Corps, to April, District of St. Mary's, 22nd Corps, to May, The unit saw duty at Alexandria, Va. Moved to White House, Va. Engaged June Accompanied Gen. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond July, , to April, Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30, Weldon Railroad August Poplar Grove Church September and October 1.

On Bermuda front and before Richmond until April, Mary's, Md. Moved to City Point, Va. Mustered out November 8, The regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 45 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and Enlisted men by disease.

Total From the description of 28th U. Kentucky Historical Society. The soldiers in the regiments described in these rolls were among an estimated , men from Missouri who fought on the Union side during the United States Civil War Perhaps 40, others served under the secessionist Missouri State Guard and the Confederacy, but overlapping service occurred among the units on both sides, and an indeterminate number of Missourians actually served in both armies.

David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, , vol. From the guide to the U. Department of Special Collections. Army Yellow Fever Commission was a board of physicians that the U. Ultimately, the commission's experiments in Cuba proved that mosquitoes transmit yellow fever--a discovery that would spur successful campaigns to control and eradicate yellow fever throughout much of the globe.

The persistence of this disease across the Cuban archipelago and its periodic re-emergence along the coastlines and great river drainages of the Americas was taking countless thousands of lives. Lack of precise knowledge as to its cause and transmission had augmented yellow fever's extraordinarily high mortality rate and had given rise to quarantine regulations which constituted substantial impediments to efficient regional trade. Endemic in the tropics, yellow fever imposed high humanitarian and economic costs upon the entire region.

Specialists regarded Cuba as one of the principal foci of the disease, and the island consequently attracted considerable attention from the medical sciences. They concluded that the causal agent for yellow fever was possibly a living entity in the atmosphere, an assertion which set Finlay on the path to the mosquito theory he developed in Louis Pasteur's foundational and highly successful work in modern immunology in and gave a renewed impetus to investigations aimed at discovering the "yellow fever germ.

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In , Italian scientist Giuseppe Sanarelli argued that Bacillus icteroides was the culprit, and the following year a third scientific team sailed to Cuba for additional tests. Eugene Wasdin and Henry D. Geddings appeared to confirm Sanarelli's assertion, though Sternberg, by then Surgeon General, remained skeptical. Despite Wasdin and Geddings' insistence, the B. In fact, a few months before the third commission's report reached the public, Walter Reed and James Carroll -- Reed's assistant at the Columbian University later George Washington University bacteriology laboratories in Washington, D.

Reed and Carroll had considerable experience in bacteriological analysis, and, Sternberg reasoned, might well be able to find the specific agent of the disease. Aristides Agramonte, a Cuban scientist who had worked in Reed's lab at the Columbian University in , was also an accomplished bacteriologist; he had identified B.

Jesse Lazear, a scientist from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, had joined the Army Medical Corps to study tropical diseases at their point of origin; he received orders for Cuba in February Lazear impressed Reed with his abilities when the two men became acquainted in March. No doubt with Reed's advice, Sternberg assembled a crack team -- all experienced in scientific research, but each with interests as diverse as their temperaments. The mix of talent and personalities generated spectacular results. What causes yellow fever?

This simple, even obvious question had dictated yellow fever research for over two decades, and so it guided Reed in organizing the work of the commission. Bacillus icteroides and other bacteriological sampling dominated their work for the first months. I would rather try to find the germ without bothering about Sanarelli. Agramonte and Reed investigated an epidemic at Pinar del Rio, miles southwest of Havana; Lazear followed later to collect more specimens, and he also assessed the situation at Guanjay thirty miles southwest.

To "my very great surprise," Reed admitted, the specific circumstances of the appearance and development of these cases gave strong evidence against the widely-accepted notion that the excreta of patients spread the disease. The theory of fomites -- infection from contaminated clothing and bedding -- and indeed even infection from airborne particles seemed altogether untrue. A clear and accurate understanding of how the disease was spread would open a new avenue to its specific cause. Nine times from August 11 to August 25, , mosquitoes landed on the arms of volunteers and proceeded to feed.

Nine times the results were negative. On August 27, Lazear placed a mosquito on the doubting Dr. Carroll, and four days later on William J. Dean, a soldier designated XY in the "Preliminary Note. Significantly, their mosquitoes had fed on cases within the initial three days of an attack and had been allowed to ripen for at least twelve days before the inoculations. Carroll vitiated the results of his experimental sickness by traveling off the post to Havana, a contaminated zone, even as Reed, ecstatic, wrote from Washington in a confidential letter: "Did the Mosquito do it?

Lazear also developed a case of yellow fever, almost certainly experimental in origin, though he never revealed the actual circumstances of his inoculation.

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His severe bout of fever took a fatal turn on September 25, Nevertheless, these results could not have been more dramatic or convincing for the Commission. Reed quickly assembled a "Preliminary Note," which he presented to the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association in Indianapolis, Indiana, October 23, After initial consultations in Cuba with General Leonard Wood, military governor of the island, and with Surgeon General Sternberg in Washington, he returned to Cuba with authorization and funding to design and carry forward a fully defensible series of experiments.

His aim was confirmation of the mosquito theory and invalidation of the long-held belief in fomites. On open terrain beyond the precincts of Columbia Barracks -- the American military base just west of Havana near the adjacent suburban towns of Quemados and Marianao also called Quemados de Marianao -- Reed established the quarantined experimental station. Camp Lazear, as the Commission dedicated it, took form in the rolling fields of the Finca San Jose, on the farm of Dr.

Ignacio Rojas, who leased the land to the Americans. Here Reed designed two small wood-frame buildings, each 14 by 20 feet, for the experimental work, and nearby raised a group of seven tents for the accommodation and support of the volunteers. The buildings faced each other across a small swale, about 80 yards apart, and stood 75 yards from the tent encampment.

Building Number One, called the Infected Clothing Building, was a single room tightly constructed to contain as much foul air as possible. A small stove kept the temperature and humidity at tropical levels, and carefully attached screening secured the pair of doorways in a vestibule against intrusion by mosquitoes. Wooden blinds on two small sealed windows shielded the room from direct sun.

Building Number Two, the Infected Mosquito Building, contained a principal room, divided into two sections by a floor-to-ceiling wire mesh screen.

A door direct to the exterior let into one section, while a vestibule with a solid exterior door and pair of successive screened doors opened to the other, so configured to keep infected mosquitoes inside that section alone. The spare furnishings in both sections -- cots with bedding -- were steam sterilized. Windows exposed the entire room to the clean, steady ocean breezes and to sunlight. Like the doorways, they were carefully screened.